I can't help with Pre Mathieu or cite any sources earlier than "Sports and Pastimes", but I can mention a few references. You've obviously researched this a lot, so this might not all be new to you, but here goes:
Ozanam's "Rcrations mathmatiques et physiques". Not too sure about the various editions, but I think Troublewit first appears in one from around 1723. Camille Gauthier's "Magic without Apparatus" refers to it as the origin of Stanyon and Caroly's "ventail transformation".
"I giochi numerici fatti arcani" (1788) by Giuseppe Antonio Alberti was an Italian translation of Ozanam, which includes Troublewit.
Henry Deans Hocus Pocus The Whole Art of Legerdemain reproduces the explanation in Sports and Pastimes.
An old Davenports book catalogue lists Le papier multiforme by Dhotel and Mayette, from around 1955.
Troublewit has also been researched by historians of origami. Eric Kenneways excellent Complete Origami has a nice entry for it, which casts doubt on the claim that it was of Chinese origin. His earliest source is Sports and Pastimes, and he also mentions Ozanam and Alberti, as well as the early Spanish magic book Engaos a Ojos Vistas by Pablo Minguet (1733). He also mentions Trewey, and Devants method in The Strand Magazine in 1896, which was simpler than earlier versions as it had six panels as opposed to the eight in Ozanams version.
David Lister has an interesting reference to something that might have been Troublewit in a book by John Selden, though Im not sure about his date of around 1660 because the book in question seems to be Table talk: being the discourses of John Selden dated 1786. See http://www.britishorigami.info/academic ... ldeuro.php
(item 10) for the quotation.
The French origami magazine Le Pli had some articles on lventail magique. The earliest one I have is issue 6 (1981), which refers back to issue 5 in which there was evidently a discussion of the history and a mention of Ozanam.
Akira Yoshizawas version of Troublewit (different from the usual method) appears in his classic Origami Dokuhon (1957), though unfortunately he doesnt explain it in much depth.
I havent made a detailed study of the above references, or of any of the more recent books on Troublewit. A number of the old magic books mentioned above are available through Google Books.
Hope this is of some interest.